Archive for the ‘Papers’ Category

Advantages of Lightning

Posted: February 1, 2011 in Papers

There is a wrong believe and understanding about lightning. the most usual people think that the all things that lightning produce for us are unrighteous but it is not true there are some advantages and benefits from lightning for us when it occur. Lightning produces materials critical to life itself. All living things depend on the chemical element nitrogen. Your body contains molecules known as proteins. Proteins are made up of several elements, including nitrogen. Nitrogen is essential for proteins but it is very hard to make into proteins. Even though 78 percent of our atmosphere is made of nitrogen, we do not get any nitrogen from the air we breathe. We simply inhale and exhale the nitrogen without using it. The nitrogen in the air has three electron bonds between the atoms which is a very strong and stable chemical arrangement. It takes a great amount of energy to break these bonds to free nitrogen to make a protein.

When lightning slices through the atmosphere, it knocks electrons from the nitrogen atoms. The atoms are then free to combine with oxygen and hydrogen in the atmosphere forming nitrates. Rain carries this new compound to the earth enriching the soil with nitrates which are the building blocks of proteins. Plants synthesize these nitrates into proteins which can be used by animals and by us.

Without lightning and the other processes built into creation to process nitrogen, life could not exist. There is a purpose and design in lightning. The Designer has also given us the intelligence to avoid many of the negative side effects of this powerful force.



Lightning Clouds

Posted: February 1, 2011 in Papers

In-Cloud Lightning: The most common type, it travels between positive and negative charge centers within the thunderstorm.
Cloud-to-Ground Lightning: This is lightning that reaches from a thunderstorm cloud to the ground.
Cloud-to-Cloud Lightning: A rare event, it is lightning that travels from one cloud to another.
Sheet Lightning: This is lightning within a cloud that lights up the cloud like a sheet of light.
Ribbon Lightning: This is when a cloud-to-ground flash is blown sideways by the wind, making it appear as two identical bolts side by side.
Bead Lightning: Also called “chain lightning,” this is when the lightning bolt appears to be broken into fragments because of varying brightness or because parts of the bolt are covered by clouds.
Ball Lightning: Rarely seen, this is lightning in the form of a grapefruit-sized ball, which lasts only a few seconds.
Bolt from the blue: A lightning bolt from a distant thunderstorm, seeming to come out of the clear blue sky, but really from the top or edge of a thunderstorm a few miles away.


How a lightning occure

Posted: January 14, 2011 in Papers

According to the electrostatic induction hypothesis charges are driven apart by as-yet uncertain processes. Charge separation appears to require strong updrafts which carry water droplets upward, supercooling them to between -10 and -20 °C. These collide with ice crystals to form a soft ice-water mixture called graupel. The collisions result in a slight positive charge being transferred to ice crystals, and a slight negative charge to the graupel. Updrafts drive the less heavy ice crystals upwards, causing the cloud top to accumulate increasing positive charge. Gravity causes the heavier negatively charged graupel to fall toward the middle and lower portions of the cloud, building up an increasing negative charge. Charge separation and accumulation continue until the electrical potential becomes sufficient to initiate a lightning discharge, which occurs when the distribution of positive and negative charges forms a sufficiently strong electric field.

What is lightning

Posted: January 14, 2011 in Papers

Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of electricity accompanied by thunder, which typically occurs during thunderstorms, and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or dust storms. In the atmospheric electrical discharge, a leader of a bolt of lightning can travel at speeds of 220,000 km/h (140,000 mph), and can reach temperatures approaching 30,000 °C (54,000 °F), hot enough to fuse silica sand into glass channels known as fulgurites which are normally hollow and can extend some distance into the ground. There are some 16 million lightning storms in the world every year.

Lightning can also occur within the ash clouds from volcanic eruptions, or can be caused by violent forest fires which generate sufficient dust to create a static charge.

How lightning initially forms is still a matter of debate:Scientists have studied root causes ranging from atmospheric perturbations (wind, humidity, friction, and atmospheric pressure) to the impact of solar wind and accumulation of charged solar particles. Ice inside a cloud is thought to be a key element in lightning development, and may cause a forcible separation of positive and negative charges within the cloud, thus assisting in the formation of lightning.

The irrational fear of lightning (and thunder) is astraphobia. The study or science of lightning is called fulminology, and someone who studies lightning is referred to as a fulminologist.